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自考英语写作基础考核知识点分析与解题思路

近些年的英文写作基本考卷在考察內容和考题种类上修改并不大,维持了出题的衔接性。考察內容包含三绝大多数:语句的构成、文章段落的创作、应用文写作。题目有调用语句、改变语病、鉴别主题风格句、重新排列文章段落、鉴别与文章段落內容不相干的语句、寄信六种。文中将按题目次序对2000年考题的考评知识要点与解题思路开展剖析和讨论,另外,也将对学生解题中的典型性不正确作一分析,期待能有利于提前准备参与2020年考試的同学们。 第一大题 调用语句(本综合题共10套题,每套题1.五分,共15分) Rewrite each of the following sentences according to the requirement.

一,考评知识要点:考察loose sentence 与periodic sentence中间的变换。

●考题:

2. I felt like taking a walk after watching the sunset. (periodic sentence)

3. While they were waiting in line for the concert tickets, the rain stopped. (loose sentence)

●回答:

2. After watching the sunset, I felt like taking a walk.

3. The rain stopped while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets.

●答题重要:

(1) 确立二种句式的特性:就词义构造言则,periodic sentence(掉尾句)中关键信息内容后面,主次信息内容在前,使语句的重心点放置句尾,致力于导致伏笔,扣人心弦;而loose sentence(疏松句)则正相反,将句义重心点放到句首,使关键信息内容一目了然。就句法结构来讲,periodic sentence(掉尾句)将句子结构中的装饰一部分放到主要成分(一般为主谓结构)以前;而loose sentence(疏松句)则相反。

(2) 第二题原话关键信息内容为 I felt like taking a walk,放到主次信息内容After watching the sunset以前,原话是loose sentence(疏松句),转换句式只需将次序信息内容互换就可以。第三题原话的关键信息内容为the rain stopped,主次信息内容为while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets,原话是periodic sentence(掉尾句),转换成loose sentence(疏松句),需次序信息内容互换。

二,考评知识要点:考察将2个单独短句子合拼成一个simple sentence的工作能力。

●考题:

5. The letter is from my foreign friend. The letter arrived today. (simple sentence)

9. My roommate was waiting for me at the door. He had a book in his hand. (simple sentence) ●回答:

5. The letter from my foreign friend arrived today.

9. My roommate with a book in his hand was waiting for me at the door.

●答题重要:

(1) 确立simple sentence(简单句)的组成:simple sentence(简单句)包括一个谓语 谓语动词(S V)的构造。

(2) 将2个短句子的一同谓语做为合拼后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语,并将在其中包括关键信息内容的短句子的谓语动词建立为simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,另一短句子转换为装饰成份。

(3) 第5题原句中第一个短句子为主次信息内容,介词短语from my foreign friend可做为装饰成份。第9题原句中,第一个短句子包括关键信息内容,其谓语动词was waiting可做为合拼后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,第二个短句子He had a book in his hand,可转换为with正确引导的介词短语构造,作装饰成份。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析

(不正确)The letter which arrived today is from my foreign friend.

(剖析)不正确有二:

一、未将原话中包括关键信息内容的短句子的谓语动词arrived做为合拼后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词;

二、带有定语从句的语句并不是simple sentence(简单句),只是complex sentence(复合句)。

(不正确)The letter arrived today is from my foreign friend.

(剖析)这是一个语病,句中发生2个沒有适合方法联接的谓语动词,压根不符英语的语法标准。

(不正确)My roommate, who had a book in his hand, was waiting for me at the door.

(剖析)此句中who had a book in his hand是定语从句,而simple sentence(简单句)中不可以带有从句。

三,考评知识要点:考察单独短句子与compound sentence中间的变换

●考题:

1. Jerry is a good student. He studies hard and grasps concepts well. (compound sentence) 6. We could take a taxi. We could walk to the restaurant. (compound sentence)

10. I needed butter to make the cookie better. I couldn’t find any. I used vegetable oil instead. (compound sentence)

●回答:

1. Jerry is a good student, for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

6. We could take a taxi or we could walk to the restaurant.

10. I needed butter to make the cookie better, but I couldn’t find any, so I used vegetable oil instead.

●答题重要:

(1) 确立compound sentence(并列句)的特性:compound sentence(并列句)是由并列连词或特殊的标点将实际意义有关、构造详细的2个或2个之上的simple sentence(简单句)相互连接组成的。

(2) 理清单独短句子间逻辑顺序:是承递、转折点、挑选、或是因果关系?明确好后在并排连词and, nor, but, yet, or, for, so当中选一个出去联接各分句。

(3) 第一题中,2分句间的关联为来龙去脉,因此挑选for引出来表述缘故的分句。第六题中,2分句为挑选关联,可以用or联接。第10题比较繁杂,前2个分句是转折关系,可以用but或yet联接;他们又与第三个分句产生来龙去脉的关联,因此挑选so引出来結果。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析

(不正确)Jerry is a good student for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

(剖析)用for正确引导表明缘故的分句时,它前边一定要用comma(分号)。

(不正确)For Jerry is a good student, he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

(剖析)除开逻辑关系不当之处外,for的部位也有误。用for联接2个简单句时,前句表明結果或结果,后句表明造成上述情况結果的缘故,因此for只有发生后面句中。

(不正确)We could take a taxi or walk to the restaurant.

(剖析)此句仍是一个simple sentence(简单句)而不是compound sentence(并列句),compound sentence(并列句)务必包括2个或2个之上的simple sentence(简单句)

四,考评知识要点:考察compound sentence与complex sentence中间的变换

●考题:

4. The tape recorder was not working right, so I returned it to the store. (complex sentence)

●回答:

4. Because the tape recorder was not working right, I returned it to the store.

●答题重要:

(1) 掌握complex sentence(复合句)的组成:complex sentence(复合句)包括一个主句及一个或好几个从句。从句分成名词性从句、修饰词性从句和副词性从句。

(2) 第4题原句是compound sentence(并列句),2个分句为逻辑关系,要把compound sentence(并列句)重写出complex sentence(复合句)时,只需将第一个分句改成由依附连词because正确引导的缘故状语从句就可以。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析

(不正确)I returned the tape recorder to the store, for it was not working right.

(剖析)for尽管也可正确引导表明缘故的分句,但它是并排连词,用在compound sentence(并列句)中,这一点与because、as、since等正确引导缘故状语从句的依附连词不一样。

五,考评知识要点:考察对compound-complex sentence的把握和应用。

●考题:

7. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week’s notice. I am very busy this month. (compound-complex sentence)

●回答:

7. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week’s notice, for I am very busy this month.

●答题重要:

(1) 掌握compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)的组成:说白了,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)是由复合句并排而产生的。具体地说,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)能够是一个简单句与一个主从复合句用并排连词相互连接的,还可以是2个主从复合句的并排。

(2) 第7题原句中的第一个语句是带有标准状语从句的主从复合句,第一句与第二句是来龙去脉的关联,将几句话用并排连词for相互连接,就可以合拼为一个compound – complex sentence(并列复合句)。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析

(不正确)Please give me a week’s notice if you want me to clean your windows, because I am very busy this month.

(剖析)此句仍是complex sentence(复合句),由于because为依附连词。在表明缘故的连词中,仅有for是并排连词,用以联接2个具备并列关系的分句。判卷中发觉,非常多的学生沒有把握好连词for的使用方法。

六,考评知识要点:考察对parallel structure定义的把握和应用

●考题:

8. Minnie bought a ticket to the play. She went out for dinner. She arrived at the theater by 8:00. (parallel structure)

●回答:

8. Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, and arrived at the theater by 8:00.

●答题重要:

(1) 确立parallel structure(平行结构)的特性:parallel structure(平行结构)是把2个或2个之上含意并排的成份用同样的英语的语法方式表明出去。平行面的构造能够是英语单词、短语、从句,还可以是语句。

(2) 第八题原来的三个短句子中,谓语均为Minnie,谓语动词bought、went out、及arrived是意思并排的成份,能够变成平行结构。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析

(不正确)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, arrived at the theater by 8:00,and went out for dinner.

(剖析)Minnie购票、出门用餐、抵达剧场是依照先后顺序依次产生的,顺序不可以随便变更。

(不正确)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, then arrived at the theater by 8:00.

(剖析)then并不是并排连词,不可以替代and.

上一讲,大家对第一种题目“调用语句”的考评知识要点与解题思路开展了剖析和讨论,并对学生解题中的典型性不正确作了分析。本讲大家将科学研究第二种题目“改变语病”,语病中的一些语病在我国学生英文创作中十分普遍,非常值得用心反复推敲。

第二大题 改变语病(本综合题共5套题,每套题三分,共15分)

Correct the errors in the following sentences

一, 考评知识要点:考察对连词(joining word)应用不正确的鉴别与调整。

●考题: 11. Your sales are up, therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

●回答:

11. Your sales are up; therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

●答题重要:

(1) 连词(joining word)可分成连词(如:and, but, for, so, because, although, since等)和连通性介词(如:therefore, consequently, accordingly, moreover, furthermore, otherwise, likewise, however, nevertheless等)。连词和连通性介词在使用方法上面有许多共同之处,但也是有不同之处。

(2) 连词和连通性介词在联接2个分句时,前后左右应用的标点不一样:连词以前常见分号(,),以后一般无需标点符号;而连通性介词以前规定用分号(;)或句点(。),以后常见分号(,)。

(3) 该句最简单的调整方式 是将连通性介词therefore前的分号(,)改成分号(;)。此外也可改成:Your sales are up. Therefore, your bonus is forthcoming. “评定标准”中要求:“与正确答案不一致,但句子成分恰当,表意文字精确,也得100分。不然,酌情考虑给分或不评分。”

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析:

(不正确)If your sales are up, your bonus will be forthcoming

(剖析)原话中的2个分句中间是逻辑关系,而不是假定关联。

(不正确)Your bonus is forthcoming, therefore, your sales are up.

(剖析)有一些学生鉴别出不来语病构造上的不正确,就认为句义不正确,对2个分句的逻辑关系作了调节。特别注意的是,创作基本考卷改变语病一题中的语病一般错结构类型,而不是语义上。

二, 考评知识要点:考察对破句(fragmentary sentence)的鉴别和调整。

●考题:

12. People worked together on the assembly line. Moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make as much money as possible.

●回答:

12. People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make s much money as possible.

●答题重要:

(1) 掌握破句(fragmentary sentence)的特性:把语句的一部分当做了一个语句。英语中一个详细的语句务必包括“谓语 宾语”构造,不然便是破句(fragmentary sentence)。

(2) 找到语病中构造不详细的语句(即不包含主谓结构的语句):Moving quickly and efficiently.

(3) 因为用词性标注构造而造成的破句的改动方式 为:将词性标注构造复原为宾语方式使其单独成句,或是将词性标注构造与其说前边或后边的语句结合在一起。本句最简单的调整方式 是将moving前的句点(。)变为分号(,),使moving quickly and efficiently融进前边的语句,变成表明随着情况的分词短语。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析:

(不正确)People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently., they wanted to make s much money as possible.

(剖析)这是一个串句(run-on sentence),误将2个单独分句合写在一个语句里边而沒有适度地分离出来标志。

(不正确)People worked together on the assembly line moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make s much money as possible.

(剖析)moving的逻辑主语是people,并不是assembly line,因而moving前务必有分号(,),不然分词短语moving quickly and efficiently就变成了装饰专有名词assembly line的定语,而不会再是谓语动词worked的随着情况。

三, 考评知识要点:考察对垂悬修饰词(dangling modifier)的鉴别和调整。

●考题:

13. Watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

●回答:

13. While watching the parade, I had my wallet stolen. / While I was watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

●答题重要:

(1) 掌握垂悬修饰词(dangling modifier)的特性:修饰词在句中找不着逻辑性上被装饰的目标。词性标注构造、动词不定式构造和介词短语做修饰词装饰语句时,易产生垂悬装饰状况。

(2) 调整时,可调节语句的谓语,使之与以上构造或语句的逻辑主语一致;也可将词性标注构造、动词不定式构造或介词短语携带自身的逻辑主语,将其拓展成从句。

(3) 原话中做修饰词的词性标注构造watching the parade的逻辑主语与语句谓语my wallet不一致,因此可将语句谓语调节为I,或将语句谓语维持不会改变,使watching the parade携带自身的逻辑主语I.

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析:

(不正确)While watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

(剖析)词性标注构造watching the parade前再加上连词while或when,不可以更改其垂悬修饰词(dangling modifier)的特性,由于其逻辑主语I不变,而与从句的谓语my wallet依然不一致。

(不正确)Watching the parade, I lost my wallet.

(剖析)调整语病不应该更改原话的含意。钱夹遗失的缘故可能是失窃,但也可能是其他缘故,比如因为粗心大意忘却在某省等。此外,从这一改动中,可看得出非常一部分学生对have sth. done构造不太熟。

四, 考评知识要点:考察对不正确平行结构(faulty parallelism)的鉴别和调整。

●考题:

14. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

15. Our new car not only is more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

●回答:

14. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or because the author is unknown.

15. Our new car is not only more user-friendly but also more comfortable than our old one.

●答题重要:

(1) 掌握不正确平行结构(faulty parallelism)造成的缘故:平行结构(parallelism)是把2个或2个之上含意并排的成份用同样英语的语法方式表述,假如含意上并排的成份用不一样等的英语的语法方式来表述,就毁坏了其平行结构。

(2) either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, both…and等关系并排连词(correlative conjunction)用以联接含意并排的成份,因此每一个连词后所跟的成份务必有同样的英语的语法方式。

(3) 14题原句中连词either后是because正确引导的缘故状语从句,or后也需补上because.

15题语病最简单的调整方式 ,是将2个修饰词比较级做为平行面成份,用not only…but also联接。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析:

(不正确)If a publisher rejects a novel, either the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

(剖析)从全句看来,这是一个逻辑顺序模糊不清,语法不合理的语病。但是理应毫无疑问的是,平行面的构造能够是英语单词、短语,还可以是从句乃至语句。

(不正确)Not only our new car is more user-friendly but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

(剖析)not only…but also能够联接2个平行结构的语句,但not only后的语句务必倒装,如:Not only is our new car more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one. 此外,not only…but also联接2个谓语、宾语同样的语句时看起来唠叨和沒有必需,故常见来联接2个谓语、宾语不一样的语句,如:Not only is he himself interested in the subject, but also all his students have begun to show an interest in it. 前两讲,大家探讨了“语句的构成”一部分考评知识要点与解题思路,下边大家将科学研究“文章段落的创作”层面的內容。

第三大题 标明主题风格句(本综合题共3套题,每套题五分,共15分)

一, 考评知识要点:考察对主题风格句(topic sentence)特点的把握及其鉴别主题风格句的工作能力。

●考题:

16. Choose the best topic sentence from the group below. Write the letter of the choice in the blank.

[A] Temperatures in the western hemisphere have stayed the same in the past century. Temperatures in the western hemisphere are being studied by scientists.

[C] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are gradually warming.

[D] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are being changed.

●回答:

16. [C] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are gradually warming.

●答题重要:

(1) 掌握主题风格句(topic sentence)的特点:主题风格句(topic sentence)是一个文章段落中最重要的语句,它的功效是归纳一个文章段落的管理中心含意,因此通常是表明一般定义的语句。范畴很大或过小,都是会使创作者没法进行文章段落,务必根据一些约束性词句将內容范畴限定到一定水平,因而主题风格句应包含主题风格和约束性词句。从词义层次分析,主题风格句是一个抽象性的句子(general statement),它务必包含文章段落要讨论的行为主体(subject)和这一行为主体的某一所讨论的层面(controlling idea),即Topic sentence=Subject Contrlling idea.

(2) 较为16题中的四句,看哪一句不仅有一定的抽象性,又能空出一定的进行空间。

(3) [C]句合乎以上的标准,在其中Temperatures in the western hemisphere是subject; are gradually warming是controlling idea,尚需拓张和关键点适用。

(4) 其他三句虽也合乎主题风格句“Topic sentence=Subject Contrlling idea”的特点,但[A]句中have stayed the same in the past century是静态数据的叙述,不利拓张;句中are being studied by scientists实际意义含糊,欠缺讨论的使用价值;[D]句中被动语态are being changed的应用使句义不足明确,匪夷所思。

二, 考评知识要点:考察在文章段落中找寻主题风格句(topic sentence)的工作能力。

●考题:

17. Read the following paragraph and underline the topic sentence.

I don’t like algebra this semester, and I’m not too found of history. But I’m enjoying my racquetball class a lot. I’m getting a lot of exercise, and I’m also enjoying the game. We usually play partners and compete in small tournaments within the class. The competition is fun, and playing partners keeps it relaxed. I also have found that I have some ability in racquetball that I haven’t had in other sports. I may sign up for intermediate racquetball next semester.

●回答:

17. Topic sentence: I’m enjoying my racquetball class a lot.

●答题重要:

(1) 文章段落中的主题风格句(topic sentence)是全段的头领,它表明文章段落的主题思想和创作者创作的目地。文章段落的其他语句务必与主题风格句息息相关,一同表明、确认主题风格句。因而,主题风格句具备抽象性,操纵文章段落中别的各句的走句。

(2) 大部分状况下主题风格句发生在段首,但还可以在段中或段尾。17题文章段落中的第二句I’m enjoying my racquetball class a lot包括subject(racquetball class)和controlling idea(I’m enjoying it a lot),下面各句就enjoying一词进行,详细描述喜爱racquetball class的客观事实和缘故。因此谈妥该句为主题风格句。

●学生典型性解题不正确剖析:

(不正确)Topic sentence: I may sign up for intermediate racquetball next semester.

(剖析)该句适合做结果句(concluding sentence),因为它务必依靠上文对enjoying my racquetball class的讨论才合理度。

三, 考评知识要点:考察依据文章段落中的适用句(supporting sentences)来推论主题风格句(topic sentence)的工作能力。

●考题:

18. Read the following paragraph carefully and select the best topic sentence from the four possible answers that follow the paragraph.

Topic sentence:

First, there are always customers to be served. I work in a downtown McDonald’s that gets lots of traffic, and as soon as I serve one customer, there is always another one ready to order. There is constant pressure because I can never step back for a few minutes and relax. Second, I have to put together all of the orders myself. To do that, I have to move all over the serving area: French fries on one side, drinks on the other, and burgers in middle. It’s easy to get sloppy and spill a Coke or throw French fries on the floor. Also, I must always move at a fast pace. McDonald’s has an image to uphold, and its workers must scurry about like ants. If I don’t move fast enough, some customers will say, “Hey, speed it up,” or “I though McDonald’s had fast service.” And with all of this nonstop work, I only get one ten-minute break every two hours. However, ten minutes isn’t enough time to rest and feel like getting back to work. It only gives me enough time to realize hoe tired I am, so I go back to work depressed. Finally, my manager really keeps the pressure on. He watches us like a hawk, and every time I do something wrong, he seems to catch it. He also has a reputation for firing people, and he never lets any of the workers feel that their jobs are safe. By the end of the day, I’m emotionally and physically drained, like everyone else, and we all head out the door grumbling.

[A] The hamburger sold at McDonald’s is my favorite food.

There are several reasons that I like McDonald’s.

[C] Working at McDonald’s is very tiring.

[D] I have no idea about working at McDonald’s.

●回答:

18. Topic sentence: [C] Working at McDonald’s is very tiring.

●答题重要:

(1) 确立主题风格句(topic sentence)与适用句(supporting sentence)的关联:主题风格句(topic sentence)是头领,起着开宗明义、言之有序的功效,其他的与主题风格有关的适用句(supporting sentences)都紧紧围绕主题风格句来进行,用于表明、确认主题风格句。

(2) 18题文章段落中的各句叙述了肯德基麦当劳职工工作中的状况:营业员要不断地招待一个又一个消费者,出现异常繁忙,人体极其疲惫,还需要承担消费者的众多埋怨和主管的严格监管。全部这种supporting sentences都用关键点适用表明一个客观事实:在肯德基麦当劳工作中十分艰辛。故[C]句Working at McDonald’s is very tiring便是该文章段落的topic sentence.

(3) [A]、[D]三句,与文章段落各适用句內容或不有关或相分歧,故为错解。

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